Rulenet end to end learning with the dual estimator for remaining useful life estimation

Watch a Demo. 9. [5:25] Tent: Fully Test-Time Adaptation by Entropy Minimization. A set of experimental data collected from degraded bearings is used to validate the Recently, a general recurrent neural network, named long short term memory, has been investigated to predict defect propagation and estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of mechanical systems or components. Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art Methods Different deep learning-based SOD models utilize these complementary multi-layer features in various ways to learn robust saliency representations with a powerful end-to-end learning . Degradation data analysis and remaining useful life estimation: A review on Wiener-process-based methods. Marketing, Operations and R&D can finally work in one tool, synchronize priorities and align work with company goals. The proposed Count-DANet is training in end-to-end, no need for training branch. The pairs and annotations were extracted automatically from WordNet and then validated manually by the authors (e. Our online services is trustworthy and it cares about your learning and your degree. Figure 2 shows a sudden rise in the number of papers published in SOD from images since 2015 when the first few deep learning-based SOD models were proposed. 3 End-to-End Hardware for Ground Systems A complete ground system can be provided as a kit with all of the necessary components bundled together and setup to work seamlessly. 0001, according to the experience. System agnostic approaches which just utilize sensor and operational time series have gained popularity due to its ease of implementation. Luo is a Fellow of ACM, AAAI , IEEE, IAPR , and SPIE. This conference program is tentative and subject to change. Buiyanov City Clinical Hospital, Anesthesia-Reanimatology Department Below are two lists of papers from arXiv's cs. This service is similar to paying a tutor to help improve your skills. D. Dr. However, the resolution conflict between LR optical flows and HR outputs hinders the recovery of fine details. In our previous work, we introduced a new classifier evaluation metric that we termed “boundary uncertainty. 255 used a 3D CNN to learn an end-to-end nonlinear The ISE phase is to some degree a plan with frequent milestones and decision points and is a much more involved plan that I believe many people truly do not prepare for. APPENDIX A A high pass KV kernel as given in Equation (A. Using rewards on an ordinal scale (ordinal rewards) is an alternative to numerical rewards that has received more attention in recent years. In this work, we propose to explicitly incorporate the phonetic and linguistic nature of speech by taking a transfer learning approach using an end-to-end automatic speech recognition (E2EASR) system. This post is generously edited by the wonderful Andrey Kurenkov. LG and stat. We investigate the Plackett-Luce (PL) model based listwise learning-to-rank (LTR) on data with partitioned preference, where a set of items are sliced into ordered and disjoint partitions, but the ranking of items within a partition is unknown. Towards that end, the employment of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, and in particular machine learning (ML) approaches, capable of analyzing large-scale data sets and detecting An end-to-end framework for remaining useful life prediction of rolling bearing based on feature pre-extraction mechanism and deep adaptive transformer model Xuanyuan Su, Hongmei Liu, Laifa Tao, Chen Lv and Mingliang Suo Human age prediction is an interesting and applicable issue in different fields. In the experiments, the hyper parameters of the network are set as the following: the learning rate is set as 0. Moreover, it has gradually become the most widely used computational approach in the field of ML, thus achieving outstanding results on several complex cognitive tasks, matching or even beating those provided by human performance. In [ 44 ], the same problem is addressed in a similar manner but with different objective functions and structures of the CNN and LSTM. The first challenge (collect) is to create a simplified process, allowing non-technical end-users to select from one or more public sites for data scraping based on a set of input parameters (e. Methods based on deep learning have been successfully applied in a variety of computer vision tasks. The balance of pseudomomentum is discussed and applied to simple elasticity, ideal fluids, and the mechanics of inextensible rods and sheets. 7 times smaller estimation errors for complex queries; (4) To the best of our knowledge The USC/ISI NL Seminar is a weekly meeting of the Natural Language Group. Compression ultrasound of the legs is the diagnostic gold standard How useful is visual input from a camera like the Intel RealSense T265 for state estimation during such aggressive maneuvers? Would using an event camera substantially improve state estimation 21) Suppose you have same distribution of classes in the data. His research spans image processing, computer vision, machine learning, data mining, social media, computational social science, and digital health. 9, in Section 2. The adolescent transition from childhood to young adulthood is an important phase of human brain development and a period of increased risk for incidence of psychotic disorders. 7 Secure mmWave Communication Using UAV-Enabled Relay and Cooperative Jammer Successful deep learning critically depends on the representation of the learned objects. In this paper, we propose an end-to-end video SR network to super-resolve both optical flows and images. Most of the age prediction researches have mainly been based on images. DIAL's idea is to achieve centralized training and decentralized execution (a common paradigm in MARL) through the continuous flow of gradients. Learning representations with end-to-end models for improved remaining useful life prognostics architecture to estimate the remaining useful life of the system. The assessment that Iraq was reconstituting its nuclear program and could therefore have a weapon by the end of the decade was made with "moderate confidence. These studies will help define the imager’s potential performance, risks, costs, and development schedule. Recently, a drastic increase in the number of brain disorders has been noted. We derive learning bounds for the estimation with and with-out privacy constraints, which lead to important insights for the data-publisher. Azure Sentinel offers a flexible and predictable pricing model. If you spent 30 years conserving assets that habit can be hard to break. 1) is most commonly used in the image pre-processing stage of deep steganalysis architectures. , in which the authors used U-Net to estimate the initial pressure distribution directly from the detected channel data. For example, to estimate the affective states, Brady et al. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot most commonly found in the leg, which can lead to fatal pulmonary embolism (PE). Amazon Monitron is an end-to-end system that uses machine learning (ML) to detect abnormal conditions in industrial equipment, enabling you to implement predictive maintenance and reduce unplanned downtime. June 13-16, 2021, Venice, Italy. A common finding is that TV‐based methods tend to over‐smooth and present patchy textures while the results obtained by learning‐based methods have finer structures preserved and more closely resemble a full‐dose CT in image texture. Real-time adaptive control of manufacturing processes using machine learning US10921782B2 (en) 2017-05-24: 2021-02-16: Relativity Space, Inc. Now, data has The Public Utility Commission of Texas today voted to issue a proposal for publication that would change the ERCOT scarcity pricing rule to eliminate the 50-times fuel index price provision in the ERCOT market low system-wide offer cap (LCAP), such that the LCAP would be $2,000 per MWh and $2,000 per MW per hour. Prepare Data. After years of saving, switching to SPENDING can be a traumatic transition. In addition, field paths cannot contain arrays before the end of the path. believe that an unsupervised end-to-end fusion network can solve different fusion problems, including multimode, multi-exposure, and multi-focus. Masanao Natsumeda, Haifeng Chen 06/10/2020; Inductive and Unsupervised Representation Learning on Graph Structured Objects RULENet: End-to-end Learning with the Dual-estimator for Remaining Useful Life Estimation for the remaining useful life (RUL) estimation of rolling element bearings based on e-Support Vector Remaining useful life (RUL) is the length of time a machine is likely to operate before it requires repair or replacement. The best way to really come to terms with a new platform or tool is to work through a machine learning project end-to-end and cover the key steps. [5:15] Benefit of deep learning with non-convex noisy gradient descent: Provable excess risk bound and superiority to kernel methods. More recent works propose to use learning-based techniques to perform imputation, e. This paper aims to present a critical In unsupervised learning, no labels are given, and the task is to discover interesting or useful structure within the data. Deploying the ability on robots enables them to assist and substitute human to accomplish more complex tasks in daily life and industrial production. Michigan) Learning-to-Rank with Partitioned Preference: Fast Estimation for the Plackett-Luce Model Abstract:. Masanao Natsumeda, Haifeng Chen 06/10/2020; Inductive and Unsupervised Representation Learning on Graph Structured Objects RULENet: End-to-end Learning with the Dual-estimator for Remaining Useful Life Estimation. The voice separation is conditioned on deep features extracted from E2EASR to cover the long-term dependence of phonetic aspects. Scrap has a low sales value, if it has any value at all. With course help online, you pay for academic writing help and we give you a legal service. A general framework is presented in which the simultaneous variation of an action with respect to position, time, and material labels yields bulk balance laws and jump conditions for momentum, energy, and pseudomomentum. This has indirectly led to an increased demand for automated brain segmentation solutions to assist medical experts in early diagnosis and treatment interventions. Scale Agile across enterprise using SAFe, LeSS, Spotify or any scaled agile framework. , name, timeframe, keywords, hashtags) [1]. Nie et al. In this paper, we propose an improved recursive total least squares approach Lubrication Oil Anti-Wear Property Degradation Modeling and Remaining Useful Life Estimation of the System Under Multiple Changes Operating Environment IEEE Access, Vol. e. Brain image segmentation is one of the most time-consuming and challenging procedures in a clinical environment. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Prognostics and Health Management , Detroit, MI pp. Contact the current seminar organizer, Thamme Gowda (tg at isi dot edu) and Jon May (jonmay at isi dot edu), to schedule a talk. How many seconds would it require to train one-vs-all method end to end? A) 20 B) 40 C) 60 D) 80. 2 Deep learning enhancement approaches. 2. Solution: B. Remaining useful life (RUL) estimation has always been an essential task of prognostics health management (PHM). 28 , 120 Such improvement with learning‐based methods is also shown in quantitative metrics of PSNR Each company will conduct a one-year study to develop an infrared and visible imaging instrument concept and mature necessary technology. This paper proposes a new boundary uncertainty-based estimation method that has significantly higher accuracy, scalability, and applicability than our previously proposed boundary uncertainty estimation method. " 5 In recent trends, artificial intelligence (AI) is used for the creation of complex automated control systems. The newly obtainedpose becomes the support pose at the end of each iteration and Academia. In the last few years, the deep learning (DL) computing paradigm has been deemed the Gold Standard in the machine learning (ML) community. , statistics, fusion A battery’s capacity is an important indicator of its state of health and determines the maximum cruising range of electric vehicles. , “DeepTrackNet: Camera Based End to End Deep Learning Framework for Real Time Detection, Localization and Tracking for Autonomous Vehicles”, in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 2020. Abstract: Abstract: To solve the problem of high fault frequency and sudden occurrence of the motor of CNC machine tool, the paper proposes a deep learning RUL(remaining useful life) prediction model based on DFS-LSTM. , and Dr. The system health management goes beyond the predictions of failure times and supports optimal maintenance and logistics decisions by considering the available resources, the operating context and the economic consequences of different faults. You sell scrap “as is. In particular, we are interested in the question, how useful this information is if the target speaker changes his/her position. MathSciNet MATH Article Google Scholar [15] S Khan, T Yairi. December 14-18, 2020 Thus, estimation of sCT from MRI in PET/MRI imaging is desirable. Evaluate Algorithms. RULENet: End-to-end Learning with the Dual-estimator for Remaining Useful Life Estimation. For some it is about becoming fit enough to complete the gruelling 26. P. Dec 18, 2019 • Chip Huyen. They have analyzed that machine learning (ML) algorithms can Cost Accounting: Allocation Decisions about Scrap. 4 is set to 0. These end-to-end solutions include the antenna, its controller, and the RF feed with all the necessary filtering and low noise amplification for the particular Google's free service instantly translates words, phrases, and web pages between English and over 100 other languages. There are two ways to pay for the Azure Sentinel service: Capacity Reservations and Pay-As-You-Go. Through collecting the motor life cycle data by sensors, constructing the data set, then extracting the depth feature set from In embodiments, the platform enables the end-to-end management of an electronic message campaign throughout the life cycle of a message, including: various interfaces by which one or more messages for a campaign may be entered into a campaign (such as by ingestion or delivery of a batch of emails, integration with one or more work flows (such End-to-End Phoneme Recognition using Models from Semantic Image Segmentation [#21784] Wei Gao, Ahmad Hashemi-Sakhtsari and Mark D. 1-8, 2020. Additionally, drug discovery and designing comprise long and complex steps such as target selection and validation, therapeutic A machine learning project may not be linear, but it has a number of well known steps: Define Problem. Ensure Accountability and Compliance Develop and Evaluate Internal Controls Platform and method of operating for integrated end-to-end gate contact process WO2020106725A1 (en) * 2018-11-20: 2020-05-28: Relativity Space, Inc. 4. RULENet: End-to-end Learning with the Dual-estimator for Remaining Useful Life Estimation Abstract: Remaining Useful Life (RUL) estimation is a key element in Predictive maintenance. In , a competitive learning-based RNN has been proposed for long-term prognosis of rolling bearing health status. ACO Student Seminar Fall 2019, Spring 2020 Spring 2020 January 10: Jinyan Liu, University of Hong Kong Learning Optimal Reserve Price against Non-myopic Bidders Abstract: We consider the problem of learning optimal reserve price in repeated auctions against non- myopic bidders, who may bid strategically in order to gain in future rounds even if the single- round auctions are truthful. Our framework learns a convolutional neural network (called personality scoring network ) to estimate the personality scores of graphic designs by ranking the crawled web data. Spotlight s 5:15-5:55. Existing deep learning based methods commonly estimate optical flows between LR frames to provide temporal dependency. Among all studied learned estimators, our results are promising: (1) Fauce has the smallest model size; (2) It has the fastest inference speed; (3) Compared with the state of the art estimator, Fauce has 10 times faster inference speed, and provides 1. Still, researchers are trying to make a completely autonomous system that resembles human beings. This new approach consists of sifting an ensemble of white noise-added signal (data) and treats the mean as the final true result. Extensive empirical evaluation shows that our model is more accurate than existing methods and that the proposed privacy mechanism and learning model are well-suited for each other. learning and RUL estimation The estimation of the remaining useful life is obtained by a one-step time-series prediction based on SVR. Seminars usually take place on Thursday from 11:00am until 12:00pm. Further research will have to be focussed in this direction to develop a complete end-to-end steganalysis deep learning architecture. Hence, you should be sure of the fact that our online essay help cannot harm your academic life. In recent years, deep learning (DL), a rebranding of neural networks (NNs), has risen to the top in numerous areas, namely computer vision (CV), speech recognition, and natural language processing. For example, the path array_column. ” The name “boundary uncertainty” comes from evaluating the Key trends from NeurIPS 2019. , 2019 ). Talk 1 by Jiaqi Ma (U. Since the image processing and Machine Learning (ML) techniques have grown up, the investigations were Dr. By taking RUL into account, engineers can schedule maintenance, optimize operating efficiency, and avoid unplanned downtime. , Analogy, Parametric and Engineering) for deriving anticipated life-cycle costs associated with planned material, including construction projects, and non-material solutions. Based on this dual-port element, a 4-element subarray can be easily constructed without resorting to a complicated feeding network. What is remaining useful life? Current Condition Failure Condition This paper presents the first full end-to-end deep learning framework for the swift prediction of lithium-ion battery remaining useful life. 2 Use of the Delivery Sequence File as a frame does not preclude use of telephone as one of the modes in a mixed-mode survey. The entire unified RNN-CNN pipeline, including data representation, embedding learning (unsupervised learning), and joint supervised learning trained from end to end, achieved very high accuracy results compared to ML models that use the same dataset (Karimi et al. RIAL&DIAL: Learning to communicate with deep multi-agent reinforcement learning; The goal is to design an end-to-end learning protocol; RIAL is based on DRQN. Probabilistic methods of reserve estimating have become more useful due to improved computing and more important because of its acceptance by professional organizations such as the SPE. Improve Results. , statistics, fusion Europe, Asia, and North America have all announced early 5G network deployment by 2020. The first being a sorted list of papers released today, and the second being a sorted list of papers released in the past 7 days. A comprehensive review of the methods based on point cloud and deep learning Azure Sentinel is billed based on the volume of data ingested for analysis in Azure Sentinel and stored in the Azure Monitor Log Analytics workspace. (a) Initial pose estimation running thesingle-view model on each view separately. ac. [ Twitter thread] With 51 workshops, 1428 accepted papers, and 13k attendees, saying that NeurIPS is overwhelming is an understatement. M. [5:00] Learning Cross-Domain Correspondence for Control with Dynamics Cycle-Consistency. It would take 10×4 = 40 seconds . Activate End-to-End AI for the Empowered Edge with eIQ Toolkit and DeepViewRT ™ inference, as part of eIQ ™ Machine Learning Software. The model can automatically estimate the importance of the corresponding source image features and provide adaptive information preservation because the model has an adaptive ability to . This treatise elaborates on the 5G specifications of both the 5G new radio (5G-­ NR) and 5G new core (5G-NC) and provides a whole picture on 5G end-to-end system and key features. 11th IFAC International Symposium on Advanced Control of Chemical Processes. See full list on mathworks. , the abstract concepts with a large number of hyponyms such as entity or object Conduct Cost Estimation encompasses the full range of cost estimation methodologies (e. The end-fire subarray features broad beam-width of over 180 degrees, high isolation, and low profile, rendering it suitable for wide-angle beam-scanning applications in the H-plane. In cost accounting, scrap is defined as material that’s left over after production. This repo also has the code to post these lists to your desired Slack channels. 2 km) distance. For this reason, estimating RUL is a top priority in predictive maintenance programs. some_array_field is invalid because it contains an array before the end of the path. In this paper, we argue that the complexities of training for a marathon, combined with the Dexterous manipulation, especially dexterous grasping, is a primitive and crucial ability of robots that allows the implementation of performing human-like behaviors. This paper develops an end-to-end neural network model for text-to-speech (TTS) system based on phoneme sequence. CV, cs. This has many useful applications, which include data visualization, exploratory data analysis, anomaly detection, and feature learning. some_array. Recent state-of-the-art pharmaceutical deep learning models successfully exploit graph-based de novo Z Zhang, X Si, C Hu, et al. Reinforcement learning usually makes use of numerical rewards, which have nice properties but also come with drawbacks and difficulties. Targetprocess gives teams the freedom to choose their ways of working keeping focus on a big picture. ”. To this end, we present a SpeakerBeam-based source extraction network that is adapted to work on moving speakers by recursively updating the beamformer coefficients. I did my best to summarize the key trends I got from the conference. It can be based on various criteria such as face image, DNA methylation, chest plate radiographs, knee radiographs, dental images and etc. A. The basic idea of this system is to partition a deep neural network (DNN) into a front-end part running on the mobile device and a back-end part running on the edge server, with the key challenge being how to locate the optimal partition point to minimize the end-to-end inference delay. Artificial intelligence (AI), including deep learning (DL) and machine learning (ML) algorithms, has emerged as a possible solution, which can overcome problems and hurdles in the drug design and discovery process . The remaining 1,385 pairs labeled as negatives were created by inverting the positive pairs and randomly matching concepts from the positive pairs. U-Net (Ronneberger, Fischer & Brox, 2015) is an end-to-end encoder-decoder network that has been firstly used in medical image segmentation. Now, say for training 1 time in one vs all setting the SVM is taking 10 second. 00001, the momentum item is set as 0. 2 mile (42. For others, it is about improving their fitness, to achieve a new personal-best finish-time. One of the earliest works on deep learning-based direct image reconstruction was reported by Waibel et al. Get Started Now Together, we accelerate breakthroughs that anticipate, automate and advance the world. 12. uk) BMC Neuroscience 2019, 20(Suppl 1):K1. No costs are added to scrap before you sell it to someone. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. An end-to-end argumentation structure parser that identifies argument components at the token level and globally optimizes component types and argumentative relations. Second, there is an interest in replacing CT with MRI in the treatment planning process mainly because MRI is free of ionizing radiation. 1-8. A new Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is presented. One approach to provide RA which is particularly suitable for traffic flows with relaxed QoS requirements (i. 37 Around To this end, we propose a deep learning framework for exploring the effects of various design factors on the perceived personalities of graphic designs. However, degradation data of machinery is seldom available, which limits the This can reduce maintenance, and thus production costs, by assessing the current condition of the equipment and estimating its remaining useful life (RUL). ML, as sorted using this metric. Soman K. Note: If a path has only one name, it is interpreted as a table. It includes sensors to capture vibration and temperature data from equipment, a gateway device to securely transfer data to AWS, the Amazon Oral s 5:00-5:15. Shubham Paliwal, Vishwanath D, Rohit Rahul, Monika Sharma, Lovekesh Vig: TableNet: Deep Learning model for end-to-end Table detection and Tabular data extraction from Scanned Document Images. extracted features from the end-to-end CNN and then fed them to the RNN. While lithium-ion batteries offer advantages of high efficiency and low cost, their instability and varying lifetimes remain challenges. Last updated on June 20, 2021. It is also a crucial piece of information for helping improve state of charge (SOC) estimation, health prognosis, and other related tasks in the battery management system (BMS). ICPHM 2020: 1 A Dual-Stage Attention-Based Recurrent Neural Network for However, PHM does not end with the prediction of the remaining useful life (RUL). 22) Suppose your problem has changed now. McDonnell: University of South Australia, Australia; Defence Science and Technology Group, Australia: P1903: Semi-supervised Training for Sequence-to-Sequence Speech Recognition Using Reinforcement Learning [#20011] Every year millions of people, from all walks of life, spend months training to run a traditional marathon. CDC 2020 59th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Jeju Island, Republic of Korea. The remainder of this article is structured as follows: In Section 2 , we review related work in computational argumentation and discuss the difference to traditional discourse The key to the low-light enhancement method based on Retinex decomposition is the estimation of the illumination layer, and this estimation relies heavily on the adjustment of parameters. 4 The NIE also pointed to additional indicators, such as other dual-use procurement activity, supporting reconstitution. Researchers working in AI think that there is a strong connection present between the learning pattern of human and AI. g. In this paper, a general approach to adapting reinforcement learning problems to the use of ordinal rewards is presented Ed Bullmore University of Cambridge, Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge, United Kingdom Correspondence: Ed Bullmore (etb23@cam. com RULENet: End-to-end Learning with the Dual-estimator for Remaining Useful Life Estimation. Field paths in the FROM clause must end in an array field. GEO-XO will be operational in the early 2030s, as the GOES-R mission reaches the end of its lifetime. ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) promotes the art, science & practice of multidisciplinary engineering around the globe. European Journal of Operational Research, 2018, 271(3): 775-796. Paragraph 30b) states that future production costs are to be based on year-end figures with the assumption of the continuation of existing economic conditions. The key to the low-light enhancement method based on Retinex decomposition is the estimation of the illumination layer, and this estimation relies heavily on the adjustment of parameters. In our recent work, it has also been used in skin lesion segmentation in dermoscopic images ( Ali, Li & Trappenberg, 2019 ; Ali et al. Amara, Karthika, R. 1 Many surveys that have transitioned from telephone to self-administered or mixed-mode approaches have used the Delivery Sequence File alone or in combination with list frames. 3 to 6. The pose with the highestconfidence score is selected as the support pose, (b) Joint estimation loop with geometricaland appearance constraints provided by support pose. in Deep Learning for Remaining Useful Life Prediction in RULENet: End-to-end Learning with the Dual-estimator for Remaining Useful Life Estimation. In , Xu et al. Whereas remote sensing (RS) possesses a number of unique challenges, primarily related to sensors and applications, inevitably RS draws from many of the same theories as CV, e. Inspired by the Tacotron-2, the proposed model adopts an encoder-decoder model with attention mechanism and applies mel-spectrogram to measure the intermediate acoustic feature. Resource Allocation (RA) is used to organize the usage of network’s physical resources in such a way that guarantees optimal utilization while providing predictive performance to network flows in terms of inter-flow fairness and guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS). elastic traffic P001 Prognostic value of a genetic polymorphism of AQP5 in sepsis depends on a source of infection V Pisarev 1, A Chumachenko 1, I Tyurin 2, R Cherpakov 2, A Tutelyan 3 1 Federal Research and Clinical Center of Intensive Care Medicine and Rehabilitology, V. 37 A CNN model was trained with simulated data and achieved similar performance with post-processing methods. , 2019). , using RNNs [31], [33]- [35] or GANs [36], [37] to estimate the missing entries, and they generally also The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is issuing an emergency temporary standard (ETS) to protect healthcare and healthcare support service workers from occupational exposure to COVID- 19 in settings where people with COVID-19 are reasonably expected to be present. Baraldi P, Di Maio F, Al-Dahidi S, Zio E and Mangili F (2017) Prediction of industrial equipment Remaining Useful Life by fuzzy similarity and belief function theory, Expert Systems with Applications: An International Journal, 83:C, (226-241), Online publication date: 15-Oct-2017. 9. Program at a Glance Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Author Index Keyword Index. Luo is the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions on Multimedia for the 2020-2022 term. Negovsky Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, Russia; 2 V. Present Results.

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